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scurvature

? scurvature;

Calculate

scurvature

? scurvature;

Calculate

scurvature

Run Example
(%i1)load(ctensor);
(%o1)          /usr/share/maxima/5.21.1/share/tensor/ctensor.mac
(%i2) (cframe_flag:false,gcd:spmod,ctrgsimp:true,ratfac:true);
(%o2)                                true
(%i3) lg:diag_matrix(-1,2,r^2,(sin(%theta)*r)^2);
                        [ - 1  0  0          0        ]
                        [                             ]
                        [  0   2  0          0        ]
                        [                             ]
(%o3)                   [          2                  ]
                        [  0   0  r          0        ]
                        [                             ]
                        [                2          2 ]
                        [  0   0  0   sin (%theta) r  ]
(%i4) ct_coords:[t,r,%theta,%phi];
(%o4)                        [t, r, %theta, %phi]
(%i5) depends(%nu,[r,t],%lambda,[r,t]);
(%o5)                     [%nu(r, t), %lambda(r, t)]
(%i6) cmetric(false);
(%o6)                                done
(%i7) christof(mcs);
                                             1
(%t7)                           mcs        = -
                                   2, 3, 3   r

                                             1
(%t8)                           mcs        = -
                                   2, 4, 4   r

                                              r
(%t9)                          mcs        = - -
                                  3, 3, 2     2

                                        cos(%theta)
(%t10)                     mcs        = -----------
                              3, 4, 4   sin(%theta)

                                           2
                                        sin (%theta) r
(%t11)                   mcs        = - --------------
                            4, 4, 2           2

(%t12)              mcs        = - cos(%theta) sin(%theta)
                       4, 4, 3

(%o12)                               done
(%i13)  riemann(true);
                                                1
(%t13)                       riem           = - -
                                 3, 4, 3, 4     2

                                             2
                                          sin (%theta)
(%t14)                   riem           = ------------
                             4, 4, 3, 3        2

(%o14)                               done
(%i15) ricci(true);
                                            1
(%t15)                            ric     = -
                                     3, 3   2

                                         2
                                      sin (%theta)
(%t16)                      ric     = ------------
                               4, 4        2

(%o16)                               done
(%i17) R:scurvature();
                                      1
(%o17)                                --
                                       2
                                      r
(%i18) 
Run Example
/*  Schwarzschild simplesave as name.macLoad from the file menu - >
 File|Batch file*/kill(all);
(%o0)                                done
(%i1) load(ctensor);
(%o1)          /usr/share/maxima/5.21.1/share/tensor/ctensor.mac
(%i2) /* set some flags */cframe_flag: false;
(%o2)                                false
(%i3) ratchristof: true;
(%o3)                                true
(%i4) ratriemann : true;
(%o4)                                true
(%i5) ratfac : true;
(%o5)                                true
(%i6) ctrgsimp: true;
(%o6)                                true
(%i7) /* define the dimension */dim: 4;
(%o7)                                  4
(%i8) /* list the coordinates */ct_coords: [t,x,y,z];
(%o8)                            [t, x, y, z]
(%i9) /* set up the metric *//* assign to lg a matrix of zeros  ':' means 'assign' */lg:zeromatrix(4,4);
                                [ 0  0  0  0 ]
                                [            ]
                                [ 0  0  0  0 ]
(%o9)                           [            ]
                                [ 0  0  0  0 ]
                                [            ]
                                [ 0  0  0  0 ]
(%i10) /* now add the Schwarzschild coefficients */lg[1,1]:1;
(%o10)                                 1
(%i11) lg[2,2]:-1;
(%o11)                                - 1
(%i12) lg[3,3]:-(1+f(t-x))^2;
                                               2
(%o12)                         - (f(t - x) + 1)
(%i13) lg[4,4]:-(1+g(t-x))^2;
                                               2
(%o13)                         - (g(t - x) + 1)
(%i14) /* make the inverse matrix */ug:invert(lg);
               [ 1   0           0                  0         ]
               [                                              ]
               [ 0  - 1          0                  0         ]
               [                                              ]
               [                  1                           ]
               [ 0   0   - ---------------          0         ]
(%o14)         [                         2                    ]
               [           (f(t - x) + 1)                     ]
               [                                              ]
               [                                     1        ]
               [ 0   0           0          - --------------- ]
               [                                            2 ]
               [                              (g(t - x) + 1)  ]
(%i15) /* get Christoffels */christof(mcs);
                                       d
                                       -- (f(t - x))
                                       dt
(%t15)                    mcs        = -------------
                             1, 3, 3   f(t - x) + 1

                                       d
                                       -- (g(t - x))
                                       dt
(%t16)                    mcs        = -------------
                             1, 4, 4   g(t - x) + 1

                                       d
                                       -- (f(t - x))
                                       dx
(%t17)                    mcs        = -------------
                             2, 3, 3   f(t - x) + 1

                                       d
                                       -- (g(t - x))
                                       dx
(%t18)                    mcs        = -------------
                             2, 4, 4   g(t - x) + 1

                                d
(%t19)            mcs        = (-- (f(t - x))) (f(t - x) + 1)
                     3, 3, 1    dt

                                 d
(%t20)           mcs        = - (-- (f(t - x))) (f(t - x) + 1)
                    3, 3, 2      dx

                                d
(%t21)            mcs        = (-- (g(t - x))) (g(t - x) + 1)
                     4, 4, 1    dt

                                 d
(%t22)           mcs        = - (-- (g(t - x))) (g(t - x) + 1)
                    4, 4, 2      dx

(%o22)                               done
(%i23) /* calculate and display Ricci tensor, ( 'dis' = true ) */ricci(true);
                      2                           2
                     d                           d
(%t23) ric     = - ((--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
          1, 1         2                           2
                     dt                          dt
                2                2
               d                d
             + --- (g(t - x)) + --- (f(t - x)))/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1))
                 2                2
               dt               dt

                       2                             2
                      d                             d
(%t24) ric     = - ((----- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (----- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
          1, 2       dt dx                         dt dx
             2                  2
            d                  d
         + ----- (g(t - x)) + ----- (f(t - x)))/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1))
           dt dx              dt dx

                      2                           2
                     d                           d
(%t25) ric     = - ((--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
          2, 2         2                           2
                     dx                          dx
                2                2
               d                d
             + --- (g(t - x)) + --- (f(t - x)))/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1))
                 2                2
               dx               dx

                                      2
                                     d
(%t26) ric     = - ((f(t - x) + 1) ((--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x)
          3, 3                         2
                                     dx
     2
    d                           d               d
 - (--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x)))
      2                         dx              dx
    dt
                                      2                2
    d               d                d                d
 - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) + --- (f(t - x)) - --- (f(t - x))))
    dt              dt                 2                2
                                     dx               dt
/(g(t - x) + 1)

                       2                           2
                      d                           d
(%t27) ric     = - (((--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x) - (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
          4, 4          2                           2
                      dx                          dt
    2                                                  2
   d                 d               d                d
 + --- (g(t - x)) + (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) - --- (g(t - x))
     2               dx              dx                 2
   dx                                                 dt
    d               d
 - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x)))) (g(t - x) + 1))/(f(t - x) + 1)
    dt              dt

(%o27)                               done
(%i28) /* Riemann with all indexes down */lriemann(true);
                                   2
                                  d
(%t28)         lriem           = (--- (f(t - x))) (f(t - x) + 1)
                    3, 3, 1, 1      2
                                  dt

                                   2
                                  d
(%t29)        lriem           = (----- (f(t - x))) (f(t - x) + 1)
                   3, 3, 1, 2    dt dx

                                   2
                                  d
(%t30)        lriem           = (----- (f(t - x))) (f(t - x) + 1)
                   3, 3, 2, 1    dt dx

                                   2
                                  d
(%t31)         lriem           = (--- (f(t - x))) (f(t - x) + 1)
                    3, 3, 2, 2      2
                                  dx

                                   2
                                  d
(%t32)         lriem           = (--- (g(t - x))) (g(t - x) + 1)
                    4, 4, 1, 1      2
                                  dt

                                   2
                                  d
(%t33)        lriem           = (----- (g(t - x))) (g(t - x) + 1)
                   4, 4, 1, 2    dt dx

                                   2
                                  d
(%t34)        lriem           = (----- (g(t - x))) (g(t - x) + 1)
                   4, 4, 2, 1    dt dx

                                   2
                                  d
(%t35)         lriem           = (--- (g(t - x))) (g(t - x) + 1)
                    4, 4, 2, 2      2
                                  dx

                           d               d
(%t36) lriem           = ((-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x)))
            4, 4, 3, 3     dx              dx
                  d               d
               - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x)))) (f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1)
                  dt              dt

(%o36)                               done
(%i37) /* Riemann with all indexes up */uriemann(false);
(%o37)                               done
(%i38) /* calculate Einstein tensor */einstein(false);
(%o38)                               done
(%i39) /* show Einstein tensor as a matrix */cdisplay(ein);
                   2                           2
                  d                           d
ein = matrix([- ((--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
                    2                           2
                  dx                          dx
    2
   d                 d               d
 + --- (g(t - x)) + (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x)))
     2               dx              dx
   dx
                                      2
    d               d                d
 - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) + --- (f(t - x)))
    dt              dt                 2
                                     dx
                                      2
                                     d
/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1)), ((----- (f(t - x))) g(t - x)
                                    dt dx
      2                            2                  2
     d                            d                  d
 + (----- (g(t - x))) f(t - x) + ----- (g(t - x)) + ----- (f(t - x)))
    dt dx                        dt dx              dt dx
/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1)), 0, 0], 
       2                             2
      d                             d
[- ((----- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (----- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
     dt dx                         dt dx
     2                  2
    d                  d
 + ----- (g(t - x)) + ----- (f(t - x)))/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1)), 
   dt dx              dt dx
   2                           2
  d                           d
((--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) + (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x)
    2                           2
  dt                          dt
                                      2
    d               d                d
 - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) + --- (g(t - x))
    dx              dx                 2
                                     dt
                                      2
    d               d                d
 + (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) + --- (f(t - x)))
    dt              dt                 2
                                     dt
/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1)), 0, 0], 
          2                2
         d                d
         --- (g(t - x)) - --- (g(t - x))
           2                2
         dx               dt
[0, 0, - -------------------------------, 0], 
                  g(t - x) + 1
             2                2
            d                d
            --- (f(t - x)) - --- (f(t - x))
              2                2
            dx               dt
[0, 0, 0, - -------------------------------])
                     f(t - x) + 1

(%o39)                               done
(%i40) /* ricci curvature */scurvature();
             2                           2
            d                           d
(%o40) (2 ((--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x) - (--- (f(t - x))) g(t - x)
              2                           2
            dx                          dt
     2                           2                          2
    d                           d                          d
 + (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x) - (--- (g(t - x))) f(t - x) + --- (g(t - x))
      2                           2                          2
    dx                          dt                         dx
                                      2
    d               d                d
 + (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) - --- (g(t - x))
    dx              dx                 2
                                     dt
                                      2                2
    d               d                d                d
 - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) + --- (f(t - x)) - --- (f(t - x))))
    dt              dt                 2                2
                                     dx               dt
/((f(t - x) + 1) (g(t - x) + 1))
(%i41) /* Kretschmann scalar */rinvariant();
           d               d                 d               d              2
       4 ((-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))) - (-- (f(t - x))) (-- (g(t - x))))
           dx              dx                dt              dt
(%o41) ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        2               2
                          (f(t - x) + 1)  (g(t - x) + 1)
       2                     2
      d              2      d              2        2
   4 (--- (g(t - x)))    4 (--- (g(t - x)))        d               2
        2                     2                8 (----- (g(t - x)))
      dx                    dt                    dt dx
 + ------------------- + ------------------- - ---------------------
                   2                     2                      2
     (g(t - x) + 1)        (g(t - x) + 1)         (g(t - x) + 1)
       2                     2
      d              2      d              2        2
   4 (--- (f(t - x)))    4 (--- (f(t - x)))        d               2
        2                     2                8 (----- (f(t - x)))
      dx                    dt                    dt dx
 + ------------------- + ------------------- - ---------------------
                   2                     2                      2
     (f(t - x) + 1)        (f(t - x) + 1)         (f(t - x) + 1)
(%i42) /* Geodesic equations */cgeodesic(true);
                d                        dz 2    d               dz 2
(%t42) geod  = (-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) (--)  + (-- (g(t - x))) (--)
           1    dt                       ds      dt              ds
                                                                             2
                    d                        dy 2    d               dy 2   d t
                 + (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) (--)  + (-- (f(t - x))) (--)  + ---
                    dt                       ds      dt              ds       2
                                                                            ds

                   d                        dz 2    d               dz 2
(%t43) geod  = - ((-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) (--)  + (-- (g(t - x))) (--)
           2       dx                       ds      dx              ds
                                                                            2
                   d                        dy 2    d               dy 2   d x
                + (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) (--)  + (-- (f(t - x))) (--)  - ---)
                   dx                       ds      dx              ds       2
                                                                           ds

                   d                        dz 2    d               dz 2
(%t44) geod  = - ((-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) (--)  + (-- (g(t - x))) (--)
           3       dy                       ds      dy              ds
                                                                           2
      d                       dy dz      d              dy dz    2        d y
 - 2 (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) -- -- - 2 (-- (f(t - x))) -- -- - f (t - x) ---
      dz                      ds ds      dz             ds ds               2
                                                                          ds
               2     2
              d y   d y    d                        dy 2
 - 2 f(t - x) --- - --- - (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) (--)
                2     2    dy                       ds
              ds    ds
    d               dy 2      d                       dx dy
 - (-- (f(t - x))) (--)  - 2 (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) -- --
    dy              ds        dx                      ds ds
      d              dx dy     dt  d                       dy
 - 2 (-- (f(t - x))) -- -- - 2 -- (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) --
      dx             ds ds     ds  dt                      ds
     dt  d              dy                2
 - 2 -- (-- (f(t - x))) --)/(f(t - x) + 1)
     ds  dt             ds

                           2                2     2
                 2        d z              d z   d z
(%t45) geod  = (g (t - x) --- + 2 g(t - x) --- + ---
           4                2                2     2
                          ds               ds    ds
    d                        dz 2    d               dz 2
 + (-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) (--)  + (-- (g(t - x))) (--)
    dz                       ds      dz              ds
      d                       dy dz      d              dy dz
 + 2 (-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) -- -- + 2 (-- (g(t - x))) -- --
      dy                      ds ds      dy             ds ds
      d                       dx dz      d              dx dz
 + 2 (-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) -- -- + 2 (-- (g(t - x))) -- --
      dx                      ds ds      dx             ds ds
     dt  d                       dz     dt  d              dz
 + 2 -- (-- (g(t - x))) g(t - x) -- + 2 -- (-- (g(t - x))) --
     ds  dt                      ds     ds  dt             ds
    d                        dy 2    d               dy 2                2
 - (-- (f(t - x))) f(t - x) (--)  - (-- (f(t - x))) (--) )/(g(t - x) + 1)
    dz                       ds      dz              ds

(%o45)                               done
(%i46) 
Run Example
load(ctensor);
(%o1)          /usr/share/maxima/5.21.1/share/tensor/ctensor.mac
(%i2) (cframe_flag:false,gcd:spmod,ctrgsimp:true,ratfac:true);
(%o2)                                true
(%i3) lg:diag_matrix(-1,r*k^2,r^2,(sin(%theta)*r)^2);
                      [ - 1   0    0          0        ]
                      [                                ]
                      [       2                        ]
                      [  0   k  r  0          0        ]
(%o3)                 [                                ]
                      [             2                  ]
                      [  0    0    r          0        ]
                      [                                ]
                      [                   2          2 ]
                      [  0    0    0   sin (%theta) r  ]
(%i4) ct_coords:[t,r,%theta,%phi];
(%o4)                        [t, r, %theta, %phi]
(%i5) depends(%nu,[r,t],%lambda,[r,t]);
(%o5)                     [%nu(r, t), %lambda(r, t)]
(%i6) cmetric(false);
(%o6)                                done
(%i7) christof(mcs);
                                             1
(%t7)                          mcs        = ---
                                  2, 2, 2   2 r

                                             1
(%t8)                           mcs        = -
                                   2, 3, 3   r

                                             1
(%t9)                           mcs        = -
                                   2, 4, 4   r

                                              1
(%t10)                         mcs        = - --
                                  3, 3, 2      2
                                              k

                                        cos(%theta)
(%t11)                     mcs        = -----------
                              3, 4, 4   sin(%theta)

                                            2
                                         sin (%theta)
(%t12)                    mcs        = - ------------
                             4, 4, 2           2
                                              k

(%t13)              mcs        = - cos(%theta) sin(%theta)
                       4, 4, 3

(%o13)                               done
(%i14)  riemann(true);
                                                1
(%t14)                      riem           = - ----
                                2, 3, 2, 3        2
                                               2 r

                                                1
(%t15)                      riem           = - ----
                                2, 4, 2, 4        2
                                               2 r

                                               1
(%t16)                      riem           = ------
                                3, 3, 2, 2      2
                                             2 k  r

                                             1
(%t17)                     riem           = ---- - 1
                               3, 4, 3, 4    2
                                            k  r

                                             2
                                          sin (%theta)
(%t18)                   riem           = ------------
                             4, 4, 2, 2         2
                                             2 k  r

                                       2           2
                                    sin (%theta) (k  r - 1)
(%t19)             riem           = -----------------------
                       4, 4, 3, 3             2
                                             k  r

(%o19)                               done
(%i20) ricci(true);
                                           1
(%t20)                           ric     = --
                                    2, 2    2
                                           r

                                          2
                                       2 k  r - 1
(%t21)                       ric     = ----------
                                3, 3        2
                                         2 k  r

                                   2             2
                                sin (%theta) (2 k  r - 1)
(%t22)                ric     = -------------------------
                         4, 4               2
                                         2 k  r

(%o22)                               done
(%i23) R:scurvature();
                                      2
(%o23)                                --
                                       2
                                      r
(%i24) 
[christof,depends,diag_matrix,exp,gcd,lambda,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [christof,depends,diag_matrix,exp,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature] [christof,depends,diag_matrix,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [christof,depends,diag_matrix,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature] [christof,depends,exp,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [christof,depends,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [christof,depends,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature] [christof,depends,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,scurvature] [christof,diag_matrix,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [christof,diag_matrix,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature] [christof,einstein,ident,load,scurvature,true] [cos,einstein,false,invert,kill,load,ratfac,ratriemann,rinvariant,scurvature,true] [cosh,diag_matrix,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sinh] [depends,diag_matrix,einstein,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [depends,diag_matrix,gcd,load,matrix,ratfac,riemann,scurvature,sin] [diff,einstein,false,invert,load,pi,ratfac,ratriemann,rinvariant,scurvature,true] [diff,einstein,false,invert,load,ratfac,ratriemann,rinvariant,scurvature,sin,true] [diff,einstein,false,invert,load,ratfac,ratriemann,rinvariant,scurvature,true] [dim,einstein,load,matrix,scurvature,sin] [dim,exp,load,matrix,rinvariant,scurvature,true] [einstein,false,invert,kill,load,ratfac,ratriemann,rinvariant,scurvature,sin,true] [einstein,false,invert,kill,load,ratfac,ratriemann,rinvariant,scurvature,true] [false,invert,kill,load,ratfac,ratriemann,scurvature,sin,true]

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